Exam Hall

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TOPIC : Obstetric ultrasound

1) What is lissencephaly ?
2) Choroid plexus cysts are associated with which trisomy ?
3) What is the commonest cause of neonatal hydronephrosis ?
4) When is esophageal atresia suspected on antenatal USG ?

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1) Lissencephaly is a brain malformation where there are essentially no sulci or gyri and a severe arrest of development of gray matter has occurs. Majority of cases are microcephalic.

2) Trisomy 18

3) Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction

4) When, in the presence of polyhydramnios, repeated examinations fail to demonstrate a fetal stomach. These signs are however absent if there is a tracheo-esophageal fistula as the stomach will fill passively through the trachea.


5) Doudenal atresia gives rise to which sign on antenatal USG and babygrams ?

6) Which cardiac tumors could present antenatally, with which condition are they associated ?

7) Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is commonly throughout which foramen, and which side ?

8) What is Pierre-Robin syndrome ?

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5) Double bubble sign

6) Rhabdomyomas, associated with tuberous sclerosis

7) Through the foramen of Bochdalek, left sided.

8) Syndrome of micrognathia and a cleft in the soft palate; the primary defect is believed to be underdevelopment of the mandible which allows the tongue to occupy a posterior position, thus interfering with the closure of the soft palate.


9) What are placental cysts ?

10) What is single umbilical artery syndrome ?

11) What are the various sites for fetal blood sampling ?

12) Prenatal skin biopsy is used to diagnose which conditions ?

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9) Placental cysts (cytotrophoblastic cysts) are found in 20% of placentae examined at term, they have a round or oval cavity, are isolated from the placental circulation and have a gelatinous fluid. These cysts are located within the placental tissue (septal cyst) or under the fetal plate (subchorionic cyst), occur frequently in diabetes mellitus or maternofetal rhesus incompatibility, they appear as single echo free spaces on USG with no flow / signal on Doppler imaging.

10) It is the most common congenital fetal malformation with appr 0.5-1% of all deliveries. Incidence of IUGR is significantly elevated among fetuses with SUA and are found with other congenital anomalies, especially minor anomalies of musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems.

11) Sites are placental cord insertion, fetal cord insertion, intra hepatic vein, fetal heart, free loop of cord.

12) Epidermolysis bullosa lethalis, epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica, epidermolytic keratosis, harlequin icthyosis, oculocutaneous albinism, Sjogren-Larsson syndrome.


13) Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts may mimic which malformation ?

14) Hypertelorism is associated with which conditions ?

15) What is cystic hygroma ? with which conditions is it associated ?

16) Which tumor arises from Hensen's node ?

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13) Dandy-Walker malformation

14) Associated with craniosynostoses (Apert's, Crouzon's), trisomy 9, Turner's syndrome, and the syndromes of multiple extra-sex chromosomes

15) Cystic hygroma is a pathological dilatation of the jugular lymphatic sac, which is a primitive structure which drains the embryological lymphatic system and usually becomes connected to the jugular vein at about 9 weeks menstrual age. Failure of this link leads to progressive peripheral edema and eventually heart failure and non-immune hydrops fetalis. Almost always associated with Turner's syndrome, and also trisomy 18,21,13, 47XXY, and mosaics. USG shows a cystic lesion that contains septae in the region of the fetal neck.

16) Sacro-coccygeal teratoma is believed to arise from an embryonic rest of pluripotential cells known as Hensen's node, it is thought to be remnant of a tail, and usually migrates to finally lie anterior to the coccyx.